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Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences.


Clinical Science



Predictors of High Serum Casein Antibody Levels among Malnourished Infants and Young Children with Congenital Heart Disease


Inas R. El-Alameey1*, Hanaa Ahmed2, Zeinab Monir1, Thanaa Rabah3, Ayman M. Abdel Gawad1

1National Research Centre, Child Health Department, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt; 2National Research Centre, Hormones, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt; 3National Research Centre, Public Health and Community Medicine Department, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt





BACKGROUND: Factors predictive of growth retardation and malnutrition in patients with congenital heart disease remain unclear.

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to measure antibody response to bovine casein through assessing serum casein antibody levels in malnourished patients three year or younger with CHD, and to determine its relationship to gastrointestinal symptoms, anthropometric measures, and laboratory data.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This cross sectional case control study was conducted in sixty patients with CHD aged 4 to 72 months. They were subdivided into thirty patients with cyanotic and thirty patients with acyanotic CHD compared with thirty apparently healthy children.

RESULTS: On comparison with controls, patients showed highly significant lower anthropometric measures, calcium, iron, hemoglobin levels, and higher serum levels of casein antibody, total iron binding capacity, and alkaline phoshatase activity (P<0.000). Serum levels of casein antibody showed significantly positive correlations with serum total iron binding capacity and alkaline phosphatase activities and negatively correlated with the age at onset of symptoms, anthropometric measures, serum calcium, and iron levels.

CONCLUSION: Serum casein antibody levels play a significant role in the pathogenesis of malnutrition. Encouragement of breast feeding and avoidance of early cow's milk consumption could prevent the development of antibody response to bovine casein.


Citation: El-Alameey IR, Ahmed H, Monir Z, Rabah T, Abdel Gawad AM. Predictors of High Serum Casein Antibody Levels among Malnourished Infants and Young Children with Congenital Heart Disease. OA Maced J Med Sci. http://dx.doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2015.015.
Key words: congenital heart disease; serum casein antibody; malnourished infants; young children; predictors.
*Correspondence: Inas R. EL-Alameey. Address: Child Health Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt. P.O: 12622. Affiliation ID: 60014618. Tel.: +20 1001858378. E-mail address: inasno@hotmail.com
Received: 11-Dec-2014; Revised: 12-Jan-2015; Accepted: 13-Jan-2015; Online first: 22-Jan-2015
Copyright: 2015 Inas R. El-Alameey, Hanaa Ahmed, Zeinab Monir, Thanaa Rabah, Ayman M. Abdel Gawad. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.


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- El-Alameey IR
- Ahmed H
- Monir Z
- Rabah T
- Abdel Gawad AM


- El-Alameey IR
- Ahmed H
- Monir Z
- Rabah T
- Abdel Gawad AM




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