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ID Design 2012/DOOEL Skopje
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences.


Public Health



Statistical Study of Risk Factors of End Stage Renal Failure in Peshawar, Pakistan

Salahuddin Khan1*, Tariq Hussain2, Hashimuddin Azam3, Najma Salahuddin4

1Department of Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Higher Education Department, Peshawar, Pakistan; 3Department of Medicine, Khyber Medical College, Peshawar, Pakistan; 4Department of Statistics, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto Women University, Peshawar, Pakistan





BACKGROUND: End Stage Renal Failure (ESRD) is the last stage of the chronic renal failure in which kidneys become completely fail to function.

AIM: The basic aim of this study was to discover the important risk factors of ESRD and to construct a model for prediction of the ESRD patients in various hospitals of Peshawar, Pakistan.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data were collected from the patients of renal diseases from three major hospitals of Peshawar. Brown method was used to obtain initial model, then backward elimination logistic regression analysis was performed to find the significant variables (risk factors). The response variable (ESRD) in this study is binary; therefore, logistic regression analysis is used to identify the significant variables. A Statistical Package GLIM and SPSS were used for fitting the model and for finding the significant variables.

RESULTS: The backward elimination procedure selects predictor variables diabetic, hypertension, glomerulonephritis and heredity, for males. Thus, these variables are the main causes of ESRD. For females, the predictor variables selected are hypertension & (Diabetic*Hypertension), which means that hypertension and hypertensive diabetic are significant causes of ESRD.

CONCLUSION: Our main conclusion from this analysis is that diabetic, hypertension and glomerulonephritis are the significant risk factors of ESRD.


Citation: Khan S, Hussain T, Azam H, Salahuddin N. Statistical Study of Risk Factors of End Stage Renal Failure in Peshawar, Pakistan. OA Maced J Med Sci. http://dx.doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2015.009
Key words: End Stage Renal Failure; Logistic regression; Backward elimination; Brown test; Risk Factors.
*Correspondence: Dr. SALAHUDDIN Khan. Institute of Management and Information Sciences, CECOS University of IT & Emerging Sciences, Sector H/3, Phase II, Hayatabad, Peshawar, Pakistan. E-mail: salahuddin_90@yahoo.com
Received: 07-Jan-2015; Revised: 20-Feb-2015; Accepted: 21-Feb-2015; Online first: 05-Mar-2015
Copyright: 2015 Salahuddin Khan, Tariq Hussain, Hashimuddin Azam, Najma Salahuddin. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
Abbreviations: ESRD = End Stage Renal Disease; S = Sex; D = Diabetes; H = Hypertension; O = Obstructive Nephropathy; G = Glomerulonephritis; Pk = Polycystic kidney diseases; M = Myeloma; SLE = SLE nephritis; A = Anemia; Hd = Heredity; Ht = Hepatitis; Ed = Excess use of drug; Hp = Heart problem; β = coefficient; Exp (β) = e β = odd ratio; S.E = Standard Error; Wald = Wald Statistic; df = degree of freedom; Sig = p-value.


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Publisher: ID Design 2012/DOOEL Skopje, Republic of Macedonia.

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