ID Design 2012/DOOEL Skopje
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences.
Statistical Study of Risk Factors of End Stage Renal
Failure in Peshawar, Pakistan
Salahuddin Khan1*, Tariq Hussain2, Hashimuddin Azam3,
1Department of Family and Community Medicine, College of
Medicine, University of Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Higher
Education Department, Peshawar, Pakistan; 3Department of
Medicine, Khyber Medical College, Peshawar, Pakistan; 4Department
of Statistics, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto Women University, Peshawar, Pakistan
BACKGROUND: End Stage Renal Failure (ESRD) is the last stage of the
chronic renal failure in which kidneys become completely fail to function.
AIM: The basic aim of this study was to discover the important risk
factors of ESRD and to construct a model for prediction of the ESRD patients
in various hospitals of Peshawar, Pakistan.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data were collected from the patients of
renal diseases from three major hospitals of Peshawar. Brown method was used
to obtain initial model, then backward elimination logistic regression
analysis was performed to find the significant variables (risk factors). The
response variable (ESRD) in this study is binary; therefore, logistic
regression analysis is used to identify the significant variables. A
Statistical Package GLIM and SPSS were used for fitting the model and for
finding the significant variables.
RESULTS: The backward elimination procedure selects predictor
variables diabetic, hypertension, glomerulonephritis and heredity, for
males. Thus, these variables are the main causes of ESRD. For females, the
predictor variables selected are hypertension & (Diabetic*Hypertension),
which means that hypertension and hypertensive diabetic are significant
causes of ESRD.
CONCLUSION: Our main conclusion from this analysis is that diabetic,
hypertension and glomerulonephritis are the significant risk factors of ESRD.
Citation: Khan S, Hussain T, Azam H, Salahuddin N.
Statistical Study of Risk Factors of End Stage Renal Failure in Peshawar,
Pakistan. OA Maced J Med Sci. http://dx.doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2015.009
Key words: End Stage Renal Failure; Logistic regression; Backward
elimination; Brown test; Risk Factors.
*Correspondence: Dr. SALAHUDDIN Khan. Institute of Management and
Information Sciences, CECOS University of IT & Emerging Sciences, Sector
H/3, Phase II, Hayatabad, Peshawar, Pakistan. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: 07-Jan-2015; Revised: 20-Feb-2015; Accepted: 21-Feb-2015; Online
Copyright: © 2015 Salahuddin Khan, Tariq Hussain, Hashimuddin Azam,
Najma Salahuddin. This is an open access article distributed under the terms
of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use,
distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author
and source are credited.
Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing
Abbreviations: ESRD = End Stage Renal Disease; S = Sex; D = Diabetes;
H = Hypertension; O = Obstructive Nephropathy; G = Glomerulonephritis; Pk =
Polycystic kidney diseases; M = Myeloma; SLE = SLE nephritis; A = Anemia; Hd
= Heredity; Ht = Hepatitis; Ed = Excess use of drug; Hp = Heart problem; β =
coefficient; Exp (β) = e β = odd ratio; S.E = Standard Error; Wald = Wald
Statistic; df = degree of freedom; Sig = p-value.
Next Article >
Table of contents
Full text (pdf)
Full text OnlineFirst (pdf)
- Khan S
- Hussain T
- Hanna LM
- Salahuddin N